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Metal materials used in 3 d printing

Number of visits: Date:2016-11-20
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With the rapid development of 3 d printing technology in recent years, it's in the aerospace, automotive, biological medicine and expanded the application scope of construction field, the advantage of convenient and quick, high material utilization continuously emerging.

 

Currently, the main metal 3 d printing technology in selective laser sintering (SLS), electron beam melting (EBM), selective laser melting (SLM) and laser near net shaping (LENS), one of the selective laser melting as a research hotspot, the use of high energy laser source, can melt a variety of metal powder. Metal powder metal 3 d printer USES at home and abroad generally have: tool steel, martensitic steel, stainless steel, pure titanium and titanium alloy, aluminum alloy, nickel base alloy, copper alloy and co-cr alloy, etc. Commonly used titanium powder for powder, aluminum powder and stainless steel powder.

 

Beijing is easy to add 3 d technology co., LTD. The core team has more than 20 years of experience in the manufacture and application of 3 d printing industry. Company focused on research and development, production of industrial-grade SLS and SLM, SLA type 3 d printing equipment, products have been widely used in aerospace, shipbuilding, automobile, scientific research, medical treatment, art, and many other fields. At the same time, the company also provide external processing services, can provide from the sample design of many industry, 3 d printing to the parts finished product complete solution, provide technical support for many enterprises have a demand.

The applicability of the tool steel from its superior hardness, wear resistance and resistance to deformation ability, and keep the ability of cutting edges at high temperature. Mould H13 hot-work tool steel is one of the, able to endure not sure time process conditions; Martensite steel, martensitic 300, for example, is also called \"maraging steel, high strength and toughness in the process of aging and dimensional stability are well known. They, unlike other steel, not because they are carbon, belong to the intermetallic compound, through rich nickel, cobalt and molybdenum metallurgical reaction hardening. Due to the high hardness and wear resistance, martensitic 300 only apply to many mould application, for instance, injection mold, light metal alloy casting, stamping and squeezed, etc., at the same time, it is also widely used in aerospace, high intensity body parts and car parts.

Stainless steel has good mechanical properties and resistance to chemical corrosion, high temperature resistant features, because of its good formability, powder preparation technology is simple and low cost, is the earliest applied to 3 d printing of metal materials.

 

At present, used in 3 d printing of metal stainless steel mainly has three kinds: 316 l austenitic stainless steel, martensite stainless steel 15-5 17-4 ph ph, martensite stainless steel.

 

Austenitic stainless steel 316 l, with high strength and corrosion resistance, can be in wide temperature range down to low temperature, can be used in aerospace, petrochemical, and other engineering applications, can also be used in food processing and medical and other fields.

 

Martensite stainless steel 15-5 ph, also called maraging precipitation hardening stainless steel, high strength, good toughness, corrosion resistance, and can be further hardening, is no ferrite. At present, widely used in aerospace, petrochemical, chemical, food processing, paper and metal processing.

 

17-4 ph martensitic stainless steel, under 315 ℃ still has high strength and high toughness, and strong resistance to corrosion, as the laser machining state can bring excellent ductility. The huazhong university of science and technology, nanjing university of aeronautics and astronautics, north central university and other colleges and universities in the aspect of 3 d printing metal research more deeply; Now research mainly concentrated in the lower porosity, increase the strength and the melting process of metal powder spheroidization mechanism, etc.

 

Titanium alloy

 

Titanium alloy with high temperature resistance, high corrosion resistance, high strength, low density, and biocompatibility etc, in the aerospace industry, chemical industry, nuclear industry, sports equipment and medical equipment and other fields has been widely used.

 

Traditional forging and casting technology of the preparation of titanium alloy has been widely used in the field of high and new technology, such as the United States F14, F15, F117, B2 and making the aircraft with titanium ratio respectively: 24%, 27%, 25%, 26% and 42%, a Boeing 747 aircraft with titanium content is 42.7 t. But traditional forging and casting method of producing large-scale titanium alloy parts, because the product cost is high, the craft is complex, low material utilization and the difficulty of subsequent processing factors that hinder its wider application. And metal 3 d printing can fundamentally solve these problems, so the technology in recent years become a new technology of directly manufacturing titanium alloy parts.

Aircraft titanium alloy large overall key component of laser forming technology is \"3 d printing\" high-end development situation, for the airline industry is a revolutionary technology, and run in the forefront of this technique are the two countries, while China is leading the United States. TiAl6V4 (TC4) were the first to use an alloy of SLM industrial production. But with 3 d printing titanium parts titanium itself plastic shear deformation resistance and abrasion resistance is poor, limits its in high temperature and corrosion wear resistance under the conditions of use. Thus rhenium (Re) and nickel (Ni) was introduced in the titanium alloy, the 3 d printing of Re compound sprinkler irrigation has been successfully applied to aircraft engine combustion chamber, the working temperature is 2200 ℃.

Aluminum alloy

 

Aluminum alloy has excellent physical, chemical and mechanical properties, obtained widespread application in many fields, but the nature of the aluminum alloy, such as easy oxidation, high reflectivity and thermal conductivity, etc.) increased the difficulty of the selective laser melting manufacturing. Currently, SLM forming aluminum alloy oxidation, residual stress, void defects exist in the problem such as density, these problems mainly through strict protective atmosphere, increase the laser power, reduce the scanning speed, etc. At present, SLM forming aluminum alloy materials are mainly concentrated in Al - Si - department of Mg alloy, mainly include the aluminum silicon AlSi12 and AlSi10Mg two kinds. Al-si 12, is with good thermal properties of lightweight material manufacturing metal powder, can be applied to thin wall parts or other auto parts, such as heat exchanger can also be used in the aerospace and aviation industrial prototype and the production of components. Silicon/magnesium alloy more strength and hardness, make it suitable for thin wall parts and complex geometry shape, especially in situations with good thermal performance and low weight.

 

The sixth generation of the trident II D5 type ballistic missiles used by 3 d printing and production of connectors back cover, the unit can protect missile cable joint. 1 inch (2.5 cm) wide connector shell after the additional printing process including a layer of thin aluminum alloy on the surface of the powder layer and a laser beam or electron beam heating source, through the computer control, the powder melting, and then into solid metal shape, its shape corresponding to the end product of this layer. After the machine will be placed under a layer of powder and repeat this process until the parts processing. This technology not only reduces the material waste, and shorten the processing time is half that of the traditional method.

 

High temperature alloy

 

High temperature alloy refers to as the base, iron, nickel and cobalt in the high temperature of 600 ℃ above and must be long-term work stress environment of metal material, it has high temperature strength, good resistance to corrosion resistance and oxidation resistance and good plasticity and toughness. At present according to the species can be roughly divided into iron base alloy matrix, nickel and cobalt base alloy 3 classes. High temperature alloy is mainly used for high performance engines, in the modern advanced aircraft engine, in the use of high temperature alloy material accounts for 40% ~ 40% of total quality engine. The development of modern high performance aeroengine on the properties of high temperature alloy using temperature and demand more and more high. Traditional ingot metallurgy process cooling speed is slow, ingot segregation is serious, some elements and the second phase in the hot working performance is poor, organization is not uniform, the performance is not stable. And 3 d printing technology in the high temperature alloys forming become the new way to solve the technical bottleneck. NASA says, on August 22, 2014, the high temperature of ignition experiment, through 3 d printing technology of rocket engine thrust nozzle produced record 9 t.

 

 

Inconel 718 is based on the super alloy iron nickel hardening, good corrosion resistance and heat resistance, tensile, fatigue, creep, suitable for all kinds of high-end applications, for example, aircraft turbine engine and land-based turbines, etc. Inconel 718 alloy is one of the first application of nickel-based superalloy, also is a kind of alloy aircraft engine usage at present most.

 

Cobalt chromium alloy with high strength, strong corrosion resistance, good biocompatibility and no magnetic performance, mainly used in surgical implants including alloy artificial joints, knee and hip, at the same time it can also be used for engine parts, fashion, jewelry industry, etc.

 

Magnesium alloy

 

As the lightest structural alloys, magnesium alloys due to its special performance, high strength and damping in many application fields magnesium alloy has the possibility of alternative to steel and aluminum alloy. Such as magnesium alloys in automotive and aircraft components lightweight applications, can reduce fuel consumption and emissions. Magnesium alloy has degradability in situ and its low young's modulus and strength close to the bone, excellent biocompatibility, than the traditional alloy in terms of surgical implants has more application prospects.

 

conclusion

 

3 d printing technology since the 1990 s, from the beginning of polymer material printing gradually focuses on the printing metal powder, a large number of new technology, new equipment and new materials development and application. Metal powder of 3 d printing technology has obtained the certain achievement, but material bottleneck is bound to affect the development of 3 d printing, 3 d printing technology put forward higher requirements for the materials. Now is applicable to various types of metal materials industry with 3 d printing, but only a special powder materials can meet the requirements of industrial production. Metal powder, therefore, the development of 3 d printing is still a long way to go.

 

 

 

 

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